Project title: Investigation of the Sources and Uses of Obsidian during the Neolithic in Poland
Project No: NCN OPUS 15 2018/29/B/HS3/01540
Project lead: dr Dagmara H. Werra
Project lead, institutional: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Project financing: National Science Center
phone (22) 620-28-81 do 86
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Obsidian, the volcanic glass, was one of the best quality siliceous rocks utilized by pre-historical societies for making various kinds of tools. Due to its characteristic composition and the content of rare soil elements making for the geochemical "fingerprints", it is possible to determine the attributes characteristic for a given geological source of obsidian by applying various instrumental methods. In effect, we may compare the attributes of obsidian archaeological artefacts in order to determine the most probable place of origin for the raw material of which it had been made.
The project will involve a few analyses, among others carrying out EDXRF analysis. The results obtained allow for interpretations concerning the functioning of past societies in pre-history. It is possible to disclose the issues of access to the obsidian deposits and territory control, specialization, and the use of obsidian. The outcome of such analysis allows in the first line to follow the distribution routes of obsidian artefacts and to study the issues related to its acquiring, exchange and the contacts between communities in pre-history.
The oldest traces of using obsidian by prehistorical societies on Polish lands are dated to the Middle Palaeolithic. In Palaeolithic and Mesolithic, we find single specimens as very rare examples of a more numerous presence of obsidian artefacts (ex. Rydno, ochre mine). A dramatic increase in using obsidian begins with the arrival of the first Neolithic societies to Polish lands.
The goal of the presented project will be to recapture the distribution net of obsidian products and to examine the issues related to its mining, manufacturing, and exchange as practiced by Neolithic prehistorical societies.
The goal will be achieved by applying the technological-morphological analysis in combination with the refitting method and weight analysis. They will be performed in order to find out how the Neolithic communities utilized obsidian. We will find out if in comparison to other raw materials different splitting techniques were applied. These methods will also help to analyze in what form did obsidian reach the site: was it rolled as natural concretions and processed on the site, or did it rather come in form of ready tools or semi-products, and if so – which tools were preferred. At this stage of analysis trace evidence will be performed, in order to determine what was the purpose for obsidian products and whether it was different from the flint tools. Next, we will deal with the analysis of particular specimens, in order to determine the source of origin of the products and their chronology. Planned is a series of X-ray fluorescence analyses (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence–EDXRF). This is a non-destructive method, which is fit to examine even small specimens. The method allows for determining the characteristic composition of a given specimen and will help to find its source of origin. Planned for the first time for Polish material is also dating of obsidian specimens by hydration. This method allows determining the specimen chronology. Additionally planned at this stage is radiocarbon dating in order to establish the chronology of sites from which the obsidian originates and which were not dated up till now.
The analysis of such a large obsidian collection will allow for the first time on such a scale to attain a wide image of distribution and use of this raw material in the Neolithic on Polish lands. In effect, we will obtain a picture of contact dynamics and of exchange in time. The project will also allow examining the issue of specialization and technology of using obsidian, as well as issues related to the scope of utilizing obsidian from particular deposits and how the access to it was changing. It will contribute to the development of knowledge on past prehistoric societies – on their mutual contacts and the importance of imported products.
Werra, D. H., Hughes, R. E., Nowak, M., Vizdal, M. i Gačková, L. (2021) Obsidian Source Use within the Alföld Linear Pottery culture in Slovakia, Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, 73(1), 331-369. doi: 10.23858/SA/73.2021.1.2615.
International Obsidian Conference 2019, 27–29 May 2019, Sárospatak (Hungary): Dagmara H. Werra, Investigation of the sources and uses of obsidian during the Neolithic in Poland – preliminary review
26th EAA Virtual Annual Meeting 24-30 August 2020; Dagmara H. Werra, Richard E. Hughes, Import – gift – equivalent? Investigating the significance of obsidian during the Neolithic in Poland
International Obsidian Conference 2021; 30.04-02.05.2021; Dagmara H. Werra, Richard E. Hughes, Marcin Szeliga, Geochemical and Technological Characterization of Obsidian Artefacts from the Neolithic Site of Opatów in Southeast Poland
UISPP XIX World Congress - Meknes; 2-7.09.2021; Dagmara H. Werra, Marzena Woźny, Siliceous rocks mining, using and identification -short overview of a history of archaeological friendship between humanities and natural sciences
27th EAA Annual Meeting (Kiel Virtual, 2021);6-11.09.2021; Dagmara H. Werra, Richard E. Hughes, Mark Nowak, Marián Vizdal, Lýdia Gačková; Alföld Linear Pottery Culture Communities in Eastern Slovakia (the North-Eastern Carpathian Basin) in the Light of Obsidian Source Use
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Nauka w Polsce: Szymon Zdziebłowski, "Smocze szkło" na terenie dzisiejszej Polski było znane już ponad 20 tys. lat temu