After the tumultuous events of the middle of the 3rd century, associated with massive barbarian campaigns, life gradually returned to Tyras. The Goths, who were entrenched in the steppes of the northwestern Black Sea region, became the main military-political force here. At least some of the barbarians must have lived in the city. Despite the fact that Tyras continued to receive imported goods, the city was fully included in the orbit of the interests of a barbarian population. In general, this is a period of a slowdown in foreign economic relations, the number of imports declines, and the economy is reoriented to reflect the new conditions.
The material culture of Tyras of this period includes objects—ceramics, details of clothing, household items—that appear related to carriers of Chernyakhiv culture. Imports include goods from Heraclea of Pontus, Sinope, and the Bosporus. The ceramic assemblage contains some red-slipped tableware, as well as hand-made, associated with the barbarian tradition and Dacian gray-ware ceramics. Both “ribbed” lamps and local, hand-made replicas of late Greek lamps from different centers in Greece were in use. In addition to the Chernyakhiv and “military” brooches, local dress also made use of two-piece bow-shaped and T-shaped late Roman fibulae. Personal adornments included also glass beads of various types.
New data on the death of Tanis in the middle (?) III century. AD
In 2018–2019 In the filling of the defensive ditch surrounding the western region of Tanais, a Polish detachment of the archaeological expedition of the Tanais Museum-Reserve discovered human remains. The unusual arrangement of the skeletons and the absence of a burial pit indicate that they were hardly a deliberate burial. The archaeological material found together with the skeleton is characteristic of the 2nd – 3rd centuries. AD, which is confirmed by similar finds from Late Sarmatian burials discovered in the Lower Don. Considering all these factors, the question arises whether these remains are the victim of one of the raids that destroyed Tanais in the middle of the 2ndII or in the middle of the 3rd century AD?
Scythian-Olbian relationships in the 5th century BCE – revaluation of an old scientific controversy on the basis of the current results of excavations in Olbia Pontica
The relationships between Olbia Pontica and the Scythians in the 5th century BCE have frequently been the subject of scientific studies. However, it has never been possible to develop a commonly accepted reconstruction of the historic processes during the classical period. On the contrary – the two major theses contradict each other diametrically, despite the fact that they are based on the same ancient traditions and archaeological excavation results of the last decades. Thus, on the one hand, a Scythian protectorate over Olbia was postulated and thereby an immediate dependency of the Greek polis on the Scythian ruling class. On the other hand, and contradicting this opinion, there has been an emphasis on an initially peaceful character of the Greek-Scythian relations, which were marked by a culturally and economically profitable cooperation for a long period of time. Latest research results of a German-Ukrainian cooperation project in Olbia Pontica will in the future enable a validation of these theses. Thus, for example, Herodotus’ report of the Scythian king Skyles appears in a totally different light on the basis of the current archaeological findings from the suburbs of Olbia. Furthermore, the discovery of a Late Archaic fortification in the western part of the city, whose alleged absence has previously been voted in research as an essential argument for the peaceful relationship between the two „neighbours“, allows to revaluate the question of the urban development of Olbia in the Late Archaic–classical period. This lecture is supposed to introduce the current state of research and to demonstrate how severely it will change our perception of this Milesian colony in the 5th century BCE and therefore also of the Scythian-Olbian relationships.